Notes taken by the Lewis & Clark expedition, in which they reported on the origins and territories of various Indian tribes in the region, including the various Ojibwe bands they encountered. These are described as follows:
Chippewa of Leach Lake—Claim the country on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Crow wing river to its source, and extending west of the Mississippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, with whom they contend for dominion. They claim, also, east of the Mississippi, the country extending as far as Lake Superior, including the waters of the St. Louis. This country is thickly covered with timber generally; lies level, and generally fertile, though a considerable proportion of it is intersected and broken up by small lakes, morasses and small swamps, particularly about the heads of the Mississippi and river St. Louis. They do not cultivate, but live principally on the wild rice, which they procure in great abundance on the borders of Leech Lake and the banks of the Mississippi.
Chippewa of Red Lake Claim the country about Red Lake and Red Lake River, as far as the Red river of Lake Winnipeg, beyond which last river they contend with the Sioux for territory. This is a low level country, and generally thickly covered with timber, interrupted with many swamps and morasses. These, as well as the other bands of Chippewa, are esteemed the best hunters of the northwest country; but from the long residence of this band in the country they now inhabit, game is becoming scarce; therefore, their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent.
Chippewa of River Pembina—These people formerly resided on the east side of the Mississippi, at Sandy Lake, but were induced, by the North West Company, to remove, about two years since, to the river Pembina. They do not claim the lands on which they hunt. The country is level and the soil good. The west side of the river is principally prairies or open plains; on the east side there is a greater proportion of timber. Their trade at present is a very valuable one.
Algonquin of Rainy Lake—With the precise limits of country they claim, I am not informed. They live very much detached, in small parties. The country they inhabit is but an indifferent one; it has been much hunted, and the game of course nearly exhausted. They are well disposed towards the whites. Their number is said to decrease.
Algonquin of Portage La Prairie—These people inhabit a low flat, marshy country; mostly covered with timber and well stocked with game. They are emigrants from the Lake of the Woods and the country east of it, who were introduced, some years since, by the North West traders in order to hunt the country on the lower parts of Red river, which then abounded in a variety of animals of the fur kind.
Gass, P. (1808). A journal of the voyages and travels of a corps of dicovery under the command of Captain Lewis and Captain Clarke of the army of the United States, from the mouth of the River Missouri through the interior parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean during the years 1804, 1805 & 1806, containing an authentic relation of the most interesting transactions during the expedition, a description of the country and an account of its inhabitants, soil, climate, curiosities and vegetable and animal productions. Pittsburgh: Printed for David MKeehan.
A collaborative effort of members of the Ojibwe and Metis communities