During the middle of summer in 1851, a group of Ojibwe and Métis departed Pembina and headed west for their annual buffalo hunt. On the first night out they waited for the contingent of Métis from Grant Town (St. Francois Xavier) to meet them. Once the second group rendezvoused, the combined force elected two captains to lead them on the expedition. The Grant Town group selected Jean-Baptiste Falcon as their leader, while the Pembina group chose Pascal Breland.
Departing the rendezvous site for the hunting grounds in the west, each group advanced – separated by several miles – using a standard formation with mounted scouts out front and on both flanks of the two groups. These scouts would “float” around the field, keeping contact between the two groups using various signals, while the captains led from the front center of the line of Red River carts that followed along.
After about a week, both parties were in sight of the Missouri Coteau and the Souris (Mouse) River. The more northerly group was near present-day Minot, while the other was off to the southeast of Minot in the vicinity of present-day Sawyer, near Maison du Chien (Dogden Butte). It was likely that they would be able to find buffalo within a few days, as the region was rich with game. However, unbeknownst to them their enemy the Cut Head (Yanktonais) Dakota had observed them and were planning to attack them.
That evening, the Métis scouts of the northern group spotted a large encampment of Dakota. Knowing that they were in danger of attack, the group immediately went into a defensive posture and circled their wagons, creating a fortress from where they could defend themselves if needed. Within this makeshift fort, the Ojibwe and Métis dug a large hole in the center for the women and children to hide themselves. The animals were secured within the enclosure as well. Then, the men worked through the night digging trenches and foxholes outside of the ring of carts to serve as defensive rifle pits, with the excess dirt acting as berms for added protection.
The next morning, they saw the Dakota approaching. Estimates are that somewhere between 2,500-3,000 warriors were in the enemy force. A head count of the Ojibwe and Métis was made. They only had 77 men – including several young boys who could handle a rifle – with which to defend themselves. Two men were sent out to ask for a truce, but the Dakota rejected it and the next day the battle started.
The Dakota attacked the encampment throughout the day, but the defenders were able to hold position without a single life lost. In turn, they killed eight Dakota warriors and wounded over twice that many. The next day, it was hoped that a retreat could take place so that they could join the group near Dogden Butte, but they were quickly cut off and they were forced to retreat back to the wagons. The Dakota, angry that they could not break through, fought with increased intensity but the Ojibwe/Métis force again fought them off with the help of some of the women loading their spare guns so that they always had a ready firearm to shoot. They suffered three minor casualties and only one man died. Again the Dakota suffered worse and lost a few dozen warriors in their attack.
That afternoon, the sky darkened with an impending thunderstorm on the horizon. A Dakota emissary was sent to parlay. He announced that the Dakota would stop their attack, then a group of several hundred warriors circled the wagon fort and fired a final volley into the sky. The Dakota departed and the storm came. With the storm came 300 men from the group at Dogden Butte. These men were ready to take the fight to the Dakota, but Father Laflèche and Father Lacombe, the attending Catholic priests present, begged the warriors from pursuing the Dakota.
Later that fall, the Ojibwe and Métis sent a peace offering to the Dakota. It was agreed that they would thereafter share the hunting grounds of the Missouri Coteau.
Battle of Grand Coteau—North Dakota: 12-14 July 1851. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.lermuseum.org/index.php/colony-to-confederation-1764-1866/1815-1866/battle-of-grand-coteaunorth-dakota-12-14-july-1851-1
Eyewitness Account of the Battle of the Grand Coteau. (2013, September 11). Retrieved from http://www.metismuseum.ca/resource.php/11684
Morton, W. L. (1961). The battle at the Grand Coteau, July 13 and 14, 1851. Publisher not identified.
Notes taken by the Lewis & Clark expedition, in which they reported on the origins and territories of various Indian tribes in the region, including the various Ojibwe bands they encountered. These are described as follows:
Chippewa of Leach Lake—Claim the country on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Crow wing river to its source, and extending west of the Mississippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, with whom they contend for dominion. They claim, also, east of the Mississippi, the country extending as far as Lake Superior, including the waters of the St. Louis. This country is thickly covered with timber generally; lies level, and generally fertile, though a considerable proportion of it is intersected and broken up by small lakes, morasses and small swamps, particularly about the heads of the Mississippi and river St. Louis. They do not cultivate, but live principally on the wild rice, which they procure in great abundance on the borders of Leech Lake and the banks of the Mississippi.
Chippewa of Red Lake Claim the country about Red Lake and Red Lake River, as far as the Red river of Lake Winnipeg, beyond which last river they contend with the Sioux for territory. This is a low level country, and generally thickly covered with timber, interrupted with many swamps and morasses. These, as well as the other bands of Chippewa, are esteemed the best hunters of the northwest country; but from the long residence of this band in the country they now inhabit, game is becoming scarce; therefore, their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent.
Chippewa of River Pembina—These people formerly resided on the east side of the Mississippi, at Sandy Lake, but were induced, by the North West Company, to remove, about two years since, to the river Pembina. They do not claim the lands on which they hunt. The country is level and the soil good. The west side of the river is principally prairies or open plains; on the east side there is a greater proportion of timber. Their trade at present is a very valuable one.
Algonquin of Rainy Lake—With the precise limits of country they claim, I am not informed. They live very much detached, in small parties. The country they inhabit is but an indifferent one; it has been much hunted, and the game of course nearly exhausted. They are well disposed towards the whites. Their number is said to decrease.
Algonquin of Portage La Prairie—These people inhabit a low flat, marshy country; mostly covered with timber and well stocked with game. They are emigrants from the Lake of the Woods and the country east of it, who were introduced, some years since, by the North West traders in order to hunt the country on the lower parts of Red river, which then abounded in a variety of animals of the fur kind.
Gass, P. (1808). A journal of the voyages and travels of a corps of dicovery under the command of Captain Lewis and Captain Clarke of the army of the United States, from the mouth of the River Missouri through the interior parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean during the years 1804, 1805 & 1806, containing an authentic relation of the most interesting transactions during the expedition, a description of the country and an account of its inhabitants, soil, climate, curiosities and vegetable and animal productions. Pittsburgh: Printed for David MKeehan.
Canadian Geographer, Alexander Jamieson Russell wrote (in 1869) about the Ojibwe of the Red Lake Band making regular fishing expeditions to the Rainy River district of Ontario to harvest sturgeon and visit with their relatives residing in that region.
He mentions that, in addition to fishing, that the Red Lake people were teaching the Indians at Rainy River how to negotiate with the Crown when it came to protecting their land rights in the face of colonial pressure. Russell noted:
“Some of those who assemble at Rainy River for the sturgeon fishing, in summer, come from Red Lake, in the neighboring State of Minnesota, where they possess hunting grounds; and, among these latter, are some who have being parties to treaties with the United States for relinquishing certain tracts for settlement, for which they are now in receipt of annual payments. The experience they have thus gained has rendered them expert diplomatists, as compared to Indians who have never had such advantages, and they have not failed to impress on their kindred and tribe, on Rainy River, the value of the lands which they hold on the line of route to Red River.”
Russell, A.J. (1870). The Red River Country, Hudson's Bay and North-West Territories, Considered in Relation to Canada. With the Last Two Reports of S. J. Dawson ... on the Line of Route Between Lake Superior and the Red River Settlement. Accompanied by a Map. Third Edition, Illustrated. Montreal: G.E. Desbarats
Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, this historically significant, seven volume compilation contains U.S. treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII).
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 1 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 1 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled to Dec. 1, 1902
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 2 (Treaties)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 2 (Index)
Treaties from 1778-1883
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 3 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 3 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled to Dec. 1, 1913
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 4 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 4 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled to March 4, 1927
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 5 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 5 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled from December 22, 1927 to June 29, 1938
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 6 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vols. 6-7 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled from February 10, 1939 to January 13, 1971
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vol. 7 (Laws)
Indian affairs: laws and treaties, Vols. 6-7 (Index)
Laws/Orders Compiled from February 10, 1939 to January 13, 1971
One day, in the early 1800s, three law officers from the Red River settlement in Manitoba arrived at Red Lake, Minnesota, on a mission. They had been sent by the governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, bearing a letter from him stating that one of the Red lake men had stolen $1500 from the company a few weeks earlier. The letter acknowledged that the officers had no authority to arrest the guilty party, but that they were respectfully requesting that the leaders at Red Lake would accept their plea to recover the money.
The old headman named Way-win-che-gnon met with the officers and listened as the letter was read to him. He thought for a while afterwards and then gave his reply through the missionary, who acted as interpreter. He said, “Yes, that is true. A distant relative of mine has the money and he shall deliver it up to you.” The accused man was across the lake at Ponemah. Way-win-che-gnon sent two other headmen after him, asking that he to report at once at the Mission at Red Lake with the money. He then called the other headmen of village together at his house.
When the suspected thief arrived, Way-win-che-gnon said to him, “Lay the money on the table cousin.” The man did what he was asked. Way-win-che-gnon then asked him, “Now stand up; hold up your hand and swear by the Great Spirit that you will tell us the sober truth as to how you got this money.” To this, the man arose, held up his hand and said, “Ningah-dag-gay-de-kit-o-yan; nin-gah-ta-be-way-dush.” (or “The Lord of all shall hear what I shall say ; and I will tell the whole truth”). The man then proceeded to relate how he had stolen the money.
According to his statement, while at the Red River Settlement, he was visiting with two French half-breeds. They had been admitted into the Hudson Bay Company's store, where they noticed a large package of new bank notes lying in the office. When they came out they began to consult how they might get possession of the money. They noticed that the window was open, so they grabbed a ladder and waited until nightfall. With the ladder they were able to enter the store and snatch the money bag. However, as they were descending the ladder they were noticed. The Red Lake man was the last to come down, and he was holding the money. The two Metis men quickly ran away, leaving him holding the proverbial bag. Finding himself deserted by his companions, the Red Laker prudently ran in the opposite direction and quickly left the Settlement. He reached Ponemah a few days later with the money. His accomplices were arrested, and told the authorities that they could find the man at Red Lake, which is what led the governor to dispatch his officers to recover the money if they could.
Hearing this, Way-win-che-gnon suggested that the money be carefully counted to see if it was all there. The missionary, serving as an honest party counted the bag. The exact sum fifteen hundred dollars was recovered and the men left to go back to Red River Settlement.
Rev. James Peery Schell. (1911) In The Ojibway Country. A Story of Early Missions on the Minnesota Frontier. Chas. H. Lee Publishing. Walhalla, ND
In his 1851 book, Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation, George Copway describes a few of the species hunted by the Ojibwe at Red Lake and how successful they were in their endeavors. Copway wrote:
“Moose and Deer are taken, chiefly however in the northern parts of Lake Superior and in the vicinity of Red Lake. The Moose is one of the largest animals found, and the hunters have quite a merry time when three or four are taken at one time. It is considered best to take them before they leave their yard in the winter. If they are not thus taken, it is very difficult to secure them, as they are very fleet [and are usually found in boggy areas].
The Reindeer [Caribou] is also taken…it is the hardiest animal in the country. They are often chased for days in succession by the Indians, and a coat of ice is seen to cover them, caused by their perspiration; at the same time a thick steam arises from them. They go in droves, and when they are on the run, the light snow rises in clouds in every direction.”
In speaking about the Buffalo, Copway describes hunting incorporating Red River carts, skilled horsemen, and well-trained horses being part of the annual event:
“The Buffalo are taken at the head of Red River, where the Chippewa and the half-breeds kill between eight and ten thousand every year. The Indians form into companies and take their wagons with them when they go on a Buffalo hunt. The drove of Buffalo is very large, and grazing they blacken the prairie as far as the eye can reach.
The tread of the Buffalo makes the earth to tremble. The hunters are mounted on ponies whom are so taught that when a wounded animal falls they immediately start for an encounter with another. The Indian gathers his arrows from the grass while he is riding at full speed—a feat which is considered very dexterous, but which is quite common on the western prairies."
Copway, G., & Hulan, S. (2014). Traditional history & characteristic sketches of the Ojibway nation. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
In 1889, Rolette County officials illegally attempted to force the Turtle Mountain people to pay taxes on cattle issued to them by the US Government under treaty obligations. The county Sheriff and his men had entered the Turtle Mountains and had confiscated several cattle for payment of taxes, but since this taking was illegal, the Turtle Mountain people finally refused and told the officials that they would not allow any more of their cattle to be taken and that they would not pay taxes on their own property.
The Sheriff did not take kindly to be told what to do by the Indians, and he was determined to force them to comply with his orders. He made a request to Major McKee of Dunseith, for the National Guards to aid him in his efforts. The Major ordered all of his citizen soldiers from Troop A to report to the armory at Dunseith in January. He rallied the troops under his own accord, not having received orders from the Governor.
In total the Major brought together about 50 men and equipped them to march into the hills. The soldiers spent one night in the armory and then, after breakfast the next morning, they started to march to the north of Dunseith. Before they have proceeded very far, they were met by the local Indian Ageny H.W. Brenner. Brenner had a telegram from Governor John Miller, calling back the troops.
It was fortunate for the soldiers that they were stopped by the Governor and the local agent, because the Indians and half-breeds were well prepared for them. There were approximately 700-800 Turtle Mountain men prepared for war, and they were positioned to ambush the troops once they entered a long coulee during their march. It was said that each of the Turtle Mountain warriors had chosen a specific soldier for their target. They were planning to let the soldiers enter the ravine, then when they were all within the walls of the ravine they would be ambushed from both sides and from behind with no way to defend themselves from the sharpshooters.
In an effort to de-escalate the conflict, the Agent Brenner, Major McKee, and the local Episcopal minister went in peace to the home of Mr. Lambert on the edge of the hills and had a conference with the Turtle Mountain men who were promised that there would be no further attempts to levy taxes on them or to take their livestock.
Read more at:
(1923) O.G. Libby. Collections of The State Historical Society, Vol. V. Bismarck, ND
During the early 1840s, the Pembina Band, under Chief Red Bear, was camped on the Red River about a mile and a half north of the location of present-day Pembina, on the west side of the River. A contingent of Mandan on a war party arrived at the Pembina River and hoped to launch a sneak attack against the village. To cross the river, the Mandan built a makeshift raft and placed their clothing and provisions upon it. They then crossed the river and took up their arms, proceeding towards where the Ojibwe camp was situated.
Along the way to the camp, the Mandan encountered some children playing and digging wild carrots along a slough to the south of the camp. Among these children was a little girl, a daughter of Red Bear. The Mandan dashed forward to capture the children. The children saw the Mandan and started to run back towards camp, but the daughter of Red Bear, who was very young, could not keep up and she was captured by the enemy warriors. Grabbing the small girl, they proceeded to scalp her on each side of her head, and then they released her thinking that she would soon die from blood loss.
Shortly, the children who had fled the enemy entered camp and cried that the enemy was coming! The Ojibwe men were currently holding a council of the warriors, and they were immediately roused and grabbed their weapons to prepare for battle. They moved in the direction from where the children had fled, and on their way they found the daughter of Red Bear, profusely bleeding and staggering in confusion and pain. Among the warriors were two sons of Red Bear - Sky (Sha-we-ne-kezik) and Great Walker (Na-ta-wish-kung). They quickly assessed their young sister and then sped on in pursuit of the enemy, with the rest of the warriors.
As they reached the north bank of the Pembina River they saw the Mandan warriors disappearing over the bank. As they reached the top of the bank they saw a Mandan stand up. Immediately both of the brothers raised their guns and fired, their guns sounded like a single shot and the Mandan dropped dead where he stood. The rest of the Mandan started to flee in a panic, plunging into the river to swim for their lives at the overwhelming number of Ojibwe warriors. The Ojibwe came to the top of the river bank and started to fire at will at the swimming Mandan, who were mostly shot dead before they reached the opposite bank.
Years afterward, when the two tribes were at peace, the Ojibwe learned very few of this forty-man Mandan war party ever made it home.
The little girl who had been scalped did not die. She suffered greatly, but she lived to grow up and was married, although she later drowned when her canoe tipped over in the river.
Read more at:
(1923) O.G. Libby. Collections of The State Historical Society, Vol. V. Bismarck, ND
One of the most reliable sources for defining the territory of the Pembina/Turtle Mountain Ojibwe in what is now North Dakota comes from the 1858 peace agreement, forged between the chiefs and headmen of the band and the Sisseton and Yankton Dakota, called the “Sweet Corn Treaty”. The Sweet Corn Treaty sought to establish peace and to define hunting and territorial boundaries so that there was no cause for warfare and so that resources would be shared without animosity.
The Sweet Corn Treaty was read into various congressional bills throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, and was later used in the official findings of the Indian Claims Commission. The language of the treaty stated:
We, Ojoupay (Sweet Corn, son of Ojoupay), second chief of the Sisseton and Yankton tribes of Dakotas, and Wahnatah (He-who-rushes-on), son of Wahnatah, first chief of the Sisseton and Yankton tribes of Dakotas, do hereby declare that we intend to abide by the articles of the treaty entered into by our fathers, represented by Chief Wahnatah with the Chippewas, represented by Chief Emaydaskah (Flat Mouth) at Prairie du Chine, about thirty-three years ago, by which treaty the boundary line dividing the lands of the two nations (the Chippewas and Dakotas) was established and agreed upon. We further declare that it is within our recollection that after the above treaty was agreed upon the boundary line has ever been known to us and our people to have been as follows: Commencing at the mouth of the River Wahtab, thence ascending its course and running through Lake Wahtab; from thence taking a westerly course and passing through the fork of Sauk River; thence running in a northerly direction through Otter Tail Lake and striking the Red River at the mouth of Buffalo River, thence following the course of the Red River down to the mouth of Goose River, thence ascending the course of Goose River up to its source; then taking the due westerly course and passing through the center of Devils Lake at Poplar Grove; after leaving the lake, continuing its westerly course to Maison du Chine [Dogden Butte]; from thence taking a northwesterly direction to its terminus at a point near the Missouri River within gunshot sound of the Little Knife River (US Department of Interior 1872).
This general territory was later granted congressional acknowledgement in an April 18, 1876, report of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, which after considering a memorial from the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, reported a bill that authorized the setting aside of a reservation for the Turtle Mountain Band. In its report the committee stated:
The Turtle Mountain band of Chippewa Indians, and their forefathers for many generations, have inhabited and possessed, as fully and completely as any nation of Indians on this continent have ever possessed any region of country all that tract of land lying within the following boundaries, to wit: On the north by the boundary between the United States and the British possessions; on the east by the Red River of the North: on the south their boundary follows Goose River up the Middle Fork; thence up the head of Middle Fork; thence west-northwest to the junction of Beaver Lodge and Shyenne River; thence up Shyenne River to its headwaters; thence northwest to the headwaters of Little Knife River, a tributary of the Missouri River; and thence due north to the boundary between the United States and the British possessions (Indian Claims Commission 23-315).
Just a few years later (September 25, 1880), Superintendent James McLaughlin, agent at the Devils Lake Agency, wrote to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs concerning the plight of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. He reported that white settlers were trespassing on their lands, and recommended that a reservation be set aside for them. Specifically, Agent McLaughlin reported:
Inasmuch as the section of country west of the treaty line of 1863 running from Lake Chicot [Stump Lake] in a line nearly due west by Devils Lake and Dogs Den to the mouth of the Little Knife River on the Missouri, thence north to the "Roche Perce" or Hole in the Rock on the International line, thence east along the International line until its intersection with the treaty line of 1863, which tract is about 80 by 200 in extent, is recognized by all neighboring Indians as belonging to the Pembina and Turtle Mountain Bands of Chippewas, and as the same has never been ceded to the government, and the Indians being desirous to relinquish for a consideration to enable them to commence a life of agriculture, I would respectfully recommend it to the careful consideration of the Department (Indian Claims Commission 72-113).
Each of the points mentioned in the above descriptions correspond to a place of importance and/or settlement associated with the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. For example, Stump Lake was the location of the village of Black Duck (Mug-a-dish-ib), a powerful sub-chief of the Ojibwe; Poplar Grove (Graham’s Island) is the location of the village of Chief Little Shell I and was also the location of a Chippewa village attacked by the Dakota in 1852; Dogden Butte was an important hunting and camping area to the Ojibwe (Indian Claims Commission 23-315).
United States Indian Claims Commission (ICC)
(1970) Before the Indian Claims Commission. Indian Claims Commission Docket 23-315. United States
General Printing Office.
United States Indian Claims Commission (ICC)
(1970) Before the Indian Claims Commission. Indian Claims Commission Docket 72-113. United States
General Printing Office.
US Congress (Department of Interior)
(1872) U.S. Serial Set, Number 4015, 56th Congress, 1st Session, Pages 852 and 853. United States
General Printing Office.
During the spring of 1869, hostilities between the Ojibwe and the Dakota escalated and the White Earth and Leech Lakers were accused of several murders. The rising tensions between the tribes was worrisome to the government agents who were waiting to settle white men in the Red River valley, which would be difficult if there was a wholesale war happening. Father Genin, a Catholic priest with ties to the Ojibwe and Dakota communities took it upon himself to invite representatives from the various bands to come to Fort Abercrombie in August, 1870.
The Indians weary of fighting heeded his call. 1,800 chiefs, headmen, and warriors – 900 Ojibwe and 900 Dakota – showed up and attended a three-day negotiation that ended happily on August 15. The accord was signed by all the attending principal chiefs in the presence of the commanding officer of the Fort.
As part of the treaty, Chief White Cloud of the White Earth band agreed to hand over the murderer´s annuities to the relatives of the dead. White Cloud later visited Fort Totten for a similar peace council with the Devils lake Dakotas.
For his part, Father Genin raised a large white cross at the location where Ojibwe Chief Muk-a-dish-ib (Black Duck) and his men were killed during a battle near present-day Wild Rice, North Dakota, and from that day forward war parties were not seen in the Red River valley.
The treaty read as follows:
We the undersigned men of the Chippewa and Sioux Nations considering that it is an evil thing to have war amongst us and destroy each other contrarily to agreements previously taken according to the advice of government Agents and our President himself.
We have this day met at Fort Abercrombie, in presence of General L.C. Hunt, Mrs. Hunt, R. Father Genin, and of Lieut. John B. Rodman, for the purpose of making an everlasting peace and causing the Government officers to enforce the laws already in existence, providing for cases of trouble or war caused to one nation by the other, or to one band of a nation by some band, or bands of another nation.
We therefore want our President to know:
1st That we have this day became friends together forever and will keep our word good.
2nd That we wish the former law which attributes the pay of a murderer who breaks the peace existing among us, to the relatives of the murdered one to be put in force from this day and namely in the case of Nikampines, who last year destroyed the life of two Sioux Indians.
3rd. That we desire that the two Sioux Indians Huioyanke and Oncare 1st relations to the murdered ones be held up as great men on account of their readiness in forgiving the murderer for the good of peace.
Sioux (Signed by)
Ojibwe (Signed by)
Lipenier des Chefs
Lieut. Col. 20th Inf.
John B. Rodman
2nd Lieut. 20th Inf.
J. B. M. Genin
Missionnarie A Postilique
Fort Abercrombie, D.T.
August 14, 1870
Short biographies of some of the Dakota signers:
Ojupi (Sweetcorn): The signer of the treaty was not the original Sweetcorn, but rather his son, Wasuiciyapi (Hail Knocking Against Himself) who later took his allotment on the Lake Traverse Reservation.
Ecanajinka (Almost Standing Steady): A chief of the Snake River scout camp under the command of Gabriel Renville. He later settled on the Devils Lake Reservation. He died before allotment.
Paul Mazakutemani (Walking Shooting a Gun): Also known as Little Paul. He was a Christian convert who remained loyal during the Minnesota Uprising. He was Chief of the Twin Lakes scout camp. He took his allotment on the Lake Traverse Reservation.
Hupacokamaza (Iron Middle Wing): from Lake Traverse.
Visihu (?) Tizihu, Wizihu.
Wakanhdimaza (Iron Lighting): A Chief who eventually settled at Devils Lake.
Wasicuncatka (Left Handed Spirit): Also known as Hotonhowaste (Good Loud Voice).
Miniatahowaŝte (Good Voice at the Water): Later signed the 1872-73 Sisseton/Wahpeton agreement to sell the land between Devils Lake and Lake Traverse.
Wakanukita (Prove his Holiness): Chief Standing Buffalo’s First Soldier who later settled at Devils Lake.
Wakanadiduta (?) Wakanhdiduta: As called Scarlet Lighting. Later settled at Lake Traverse.
Hupahuna (Wing Bone): Later settled at Lake Traverse.
Icahtake (Touch): A signer of the 1872-73 Sisseton/Wahpeton agreement. He died before allotment.
Ŝunkawambdi (Dog Eagle): Later settled at Lake Traverse..
Aadiideya (Lighting Flash): Later settled at Lake Traverse..
Canteiyapa (Heart Beat): Signed 1872-73 Sisseton/Wahpeton agreement. Settled at Devils Lake.
Wambdiupiduta (Scarlet Eagle Tail): also known as Red Feather and Scarlet Plume. He was part of the 1858 delegation to Washington, DC. Later settled at Lake Traverse.
Pejikaġa (Making Grass or possibly Making Medicine): Later settled at Lake Traverse.
Wicanĥpi (Star or Tomahawk): Later settled at Lake Traverse.
Short biographies of some of the Ojibwe signers:
Wabanakwat (White Cloud): Chief of the White Earth Ojibwe.
Nebaneska (Comes Sleeping): A Chief. He died in 1874.
Nijakakijik (Double Sky or Sky that Touches the Ground or Crossing Sky II): A Chief at White Earth.
Okins (Little Bone)
Wapus (Rabbit): A Leech Lake Chief. There is a Waboose Bay in Leech Lake named after him.
Otchipwe (Ojibwe): A cousin of Chief Hole-in-the-Day.
Ayabe (He who rests on the way, or Little Shell III): Chief of the Pembina and Turtle Mountain bands.
Pwanins (Little Sioux)
Cingwabe (White Weasel)
Kwesikut (Tree Cutter)
Nabeniash (also called Naytowash, He Who Stands Examining): A Chief.
Wemiikkons (Waving Little Beaver)
Manito (The Spirit)
Takawikijik (Rising day): A Cousin of Hole-in-the-Day. He was a government appointed Chief.
Makiikijik (Wounded Sky)
Kapiponske (Little Winter)
Ociksos (Little Wind)
Tedatan (Floating in Place)
Otinikans (Little Wind)
Nakanash (First Runner): A Chief.
For more information:
A collaborative effort of members of the Ojibwe and Metis communities