From MINUTES OF THE GRAND COUNCIL OF JANUARY 29, 1892.
This is NOT an exhaustive list of everyone who was present at the Grand Council of 1892, but is a list of persons present who had both a listed name and an accompanying "Indian name". Most of the names are in either Michif or Ojibwe. No translations are provided and the spellings are probably not entirely accurate.
Names from the Minutes of the Grand Council Proceedings of January 29, 1892
Arkee winini (Alexandre Jeanotte, Sr.)
Kar tah koo zit (Donald Short)
Ping gan (Rimeau Larocque)
Chonz (John Hayes)
Tchee non (Charles Poitra)
Ko tah mash (Modest Poitra)
May zha ke gwan abe (Zachari Poitra)
Knee croph (Joseph Poitra)
Tehee kas son (Henri Poitra)
Oza we dject (Bastien Poitra)
Sharl lens (Charles Poitra)
Lip tchee (Napoleon Poitra)
Ohe zan e ke shiz (Theodore Belgarde)
Omud diz (Maxim Lefort)
Ojib wanice (Galisse St. Arneau)
Mayn se daish kung (Alex St. Arneau)
Ah zhow e ge shig (St. Pierre Laverdure)
Was sarh kaish (Casimere Bouvier)
Pip pee shaish (J. Baptiste Jeanotte)
Tchoo wan do (Jacob Laviollette)
Man ne tous (Albert Laviolette)
Mch quah tiss (Stanislas Goslin)
Osh ke nar wins (Jaspard Jeanotte, Jr.)
Mee shee tay (William John Jeanotte),
Nur bay shish (Pierre Jeanotte)
Nar may we nini (Louis Richard)
Kee yash koo shish (Charles Ross, sr.)
To toosh (William Ross)
Ah zle day aush (Francois Dauiphinais)
Mee gwon (Gaspard Jeanotte, Sr.)
Osh kee now (Leon Jeanotte)
Mish quom meesh (Alexandre Jeanotte, Jr.)
War bish tee gwan (John Frothier)
Ine ne wish (Joseph Morriseau)
Tcheer Kuhk (Joseph Demarais)
In de bay we ne ne (Antoine Gosslin)
Nay tow o say (Jonas Azure)
Obe sane ge shig (Antoine Azure)
Bay bah o nub (Francois Patnaude)
Tay banse gay (Samnion Patnaude)
Mamais se sip (Alexandre Sayers)
Song law (Joseph Sayers)
Wid don (Louis Vallee)
Kill tchee ozhoop (Pierre Thibert)
Kar kar naish (Francios Morin)
Pet tchee ton (Joseph Brazeau)
Pas ko tail (Star McGillis)
Kar kikam mick (Alexander Larocque),
Osh kee now wens (Germeie Ladoux)
Tchee gus toosh (Kilaface Briere)
Ome mee (Antoine Desjarlais)
Tchee kee tam ens (Boniface Parisien)
Kin wah tig gons (Patrick Grandbois)
Andree shish (Andren Morin)
Kih tchee nor bay (Pierre Morin)
Osh kin oway (George Frederick)
Tah ko shish (Joseph Boneau)
Ish quork kee zons (Louis Lenoir)
Nap pah kee tche quonish (Pierre Laverdure)
Ls swis (Gabriel Poitra)
Watch amush (Xavier Thibert)
Ohk kan nish (Jean Baptiste Langan),
See see dje won ( Francios Langan)
Nap pe win (Charles Laviolette)
Tcho pee chee (Oliver Larocque)
Lil ley (James Williams)
Kakinotoop (Frank Demery)
Kay bay o ge mah (Joseph Lafournaise)
Obe quod aince (Patien Lafournaise)
Pah gwav cub (John Azure)
Kin wahte go zee (Isidore Grandbois)
View gar song (Joseph Gladue)
Weeks quoy (Francois Fournier)
Wee we yarn (Norbert Fournier, Jr.)
Boin ace inah (Alexis Malataire)
Mah tchar min (Joeph Azure)
Ke way ke new (Benjamin Azure)
Tehee kee tarn (Ignacieus Parisien)
Sharl gardee (Charles Beston)
Mih tigonish (Laurent Duchien)
Sharl loo (Charle Patenaude)
Nub un ay gar bou (Michel Davis)
Tchee quan (Charles Gladue)
Tche quon ence (Charles Gladue, Sr.)
Pah tee no de we (Corbet Patnaude)
Nud bay shish (Norbert Landry)
Mush kar o say (Alexis Zatste)
Pat tee tit (Jean Baptiste Bercier)
Tchee moy eez (Moise Azure)
Kay kay quosh (Jean Baptiste Martel)
Tchee zanvalee (Jean Baptiste Valley)
Su serde surrett (Gabriel Portra)
War be zee (Frederick Swain)
Cour cur (Joseph Poitra)
Pah dway we dung (Louis Lenoir)
Kih tche inini (Michel Lenoir)
Osh kah way (Abrah Honore)
Pug un auhk (Alexandre Davis)
Karn nar dah (Antoine Unean)
War be zeens (Francis Swain)
Peep pe shaish (Francois Jeanotte)
Ne gon e be nais (James Azure)
Sharl la grace (Charles Page)
Mar pay shish (Jeremie Malaterre)
Fo toosh (Antoine Azure)
Peyay shish (Charles Azure)
Pin dar nash (Francis Honore)
Sharllens (Charles Azure)
Arke wen zee (Louis Decoteau)
Nee kar nis (Moise Wallette)
Me she town ish (Berard Ah gah quaye)
Mih keenoo tens (Francis Mcleod)
Wisarko day inini (Augustin LeFort)
Abrah mish (Abram Boyer)
Barnah bee (Theophil Martin)
Zoo may (Alex Azure)
Pooh yar kar (St. Pierre Gladue)
Annee ko she zam (Corbette Bereier)
Sewonk kon (Jean Louis Fayant)
Mar yarm mons (Louis Lafontain)
Min nah gay (Pierre Lafontain)
Kee tar kiss (William Fayant)
Bon om (Antoine Bouvier)
Par pee tchee (Hernias Demontigny)
Batees shish (Jean B. Valley)
An neep (Louis Decoteau)
Ne mi gwan nis (Zachari Malaterre)
Oke mar shish (Onezin Houle)
Tchee zo zay (Joseph Laverdure)
Tchee William (William Davis)
Tchee Davis (Leandre Davis)
Mung ge sheegan (Jerome Davis)
Sas swain (Henri Poitra),
By MAGGIE MONTGOMERY • FEB 21, 2018
"Gitigaanike" is an Ojibwe word that means "to make a garden." It is also the name of the Red Lake Nation Local Food Initiative. On February 26th Gitigaanike is teaming up with the Land Stewardship Project to hold a Farm Dreams workshop at Seven Clans Casino in Red Lake MN. Foods Initiative Coordinator David Manuel stopped by our studios to tell us about it, with Farm Dreams Director Amy Bacigalupo from the Land Stewardship Project on the phone.
Farm Dreams workshops were created for people dreaming of farming and wondering what it takes to get started. The workshop covers the steps to starting a farm--including considerations, resources, needs, passion, and vision. It also includes perspectives from an experienced farmer. It is a first step into a farming vocation--with a focus on taking care of the land. The Land Stewardship Project also offers a year-long "Farm Beginnings" course, and a "Journeyperson" course.
The Farm Dreams workshop in Red Lake is open to everyone. It starts with lunch at 11 a.m., and is followed at noon by a 4-hour workshop. More information is available online at 4directionsdevelopment.com and on the Gitigaanike Facebook page.
Listen to the full interview with David and Amy (below) for more information about the purpose and activities of Gitigaanike and the Land Stewardship Project
David Manuel from Red Lake Nation's Local Food Initiative, Gitigaanike, talks about his work to restore the rich history and healthy rewards of gardening to the Red Lake reservation--while providing economic opportunity to Red Lake members. Amy Bacigalupo from the Land Stewardship Project explains how her organization works with Gitigaanike and other groups to help new farmers be successful and keep the land healthy. http://kaxe.org/post/farm-dreams-gitigaanike-sponsors-workshop-aspiring-farmers#stream/0
From the proceedings of the old Crossing Treaty (1863)
During the Old Crossing treaty negotiations (September 29, 1863), Red Lake chief Little Rock made the following statement regarding his traditional territory:
"It has been a long time since we have made up our minds what we are going to do and say; not only myself, but all the chiefs and braves. My friend, just over there I mile from this road' [pointing to the Pembina trail crossing the river], is the line I have fixed for the home of my children, and beyond the line we will live. From the line of that cession that my relatives have ceded to you, there is where I have fixed my stake.”
In describing his former hunting territory, Little Rock stated:
“I follow the line I have stated to Tamarack Creek, and there I go in a straight line to, the Lake of the Woods, and I call that my line. That piece of land [pointing eastward towards Red Lake] is the place where I intend to live.”
Continuing to describe his former territory:
“I follow that line down Tamarack River, and from there I follow it up to Salt River [Park River] to the head of Salt River, and from there I follow it to the Place of the Stumps [Stump Lake], and from there I strike down to Poplar Grove [Grahams Island], and from there I go to the Sheyenne and follow the Sheyenne River down its channel to its mouth…"
Little Rock also addressed how he had come to take possession of this vast territory:
"My friend, I want you to fully understand how we came to own this land. Yes, my friend, you told the truth; this land used to belong to the Sioux, and so did the Red Lake. While the Sioux were in quiet possession of that country my ancestors had not laid down the tomahawk; we drove them, as it were toward the Rocky Mountains, and when we had (driven them off, then we claimed the land as our own. Talk about the Sioux owning that land more than we do! We can show you our camps all along the Sheyenne River; we hunt down there always. It is so still. We still hunt on that land, and we never want to shake hands with the tribe you have mentioned. It is only because you have driven them away in confusion that we cannot reach them."
"Whenever our people go to hunt for the Sioux, they do not find them on the Sheyenne but have to go beyond. The bones of the Chippewas are scattered all along the Sheyenne River, and that is the reason we consider it belongs to us; but you have battered the Sioux so badly we have reason to suppose there will be no dispute about boundary."
From 3878 S.doc.444, June 06, 1900, Committee on Indian Affairs. US Senate
A listing of 235 Pembina Band Ojibwe residing at White Earth following removal from the Turtle Mountains, North Dakota. This listing includes Indian name and the English translation of these names.
From: Names of the Ojibways in the Pembina Band, N.Dakota. J.A. Gilfillan (1908) Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota - Vol. 2 (pp. 150-161)
Mickinock and Maypuck Save the Day following a local panic
When the pioneers arrived they found the Indians of the valley peaceful and friendly. The settlers traded with the Indians and the two peoples were mutually helpful in many ways. Both J. W. Durham and Jacob Nelson, the valley's pioneer historians, dwell upon the marked honesty of the Indians. Nevertheless, things weren't always perfect.
In the fall of 1890 the Sioux at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, became tired of reservation life and made a break for the open. Although the revolt was easily put down, the incident caused widespread uneasiness among the settlers. Rumors spread throughout northern Minnesota that the Sioux chief had visited the Chippewa of the Red Lake Reservation to incite them to revolt, and that the Chippewa had purchased all the powder and lead available in Thief River Falls. Other terrifying stories also were current. One writer asserts that the scare in the Roseau Valley was precipitated by the "machinations of several ill-intentioned whites”. Louis Enstrom and Ole Holm, two early settlers, testify that a Mrs. Marshall, living in what is now Stafford Township, played a large part in fomenting the scare. She was a half-breed who resented the intrusion of the whites. Panic, however, was in the air. Many of the rumors probably were generated spontaneously. It was reported that three hundred Indians in full war paint had passed Sprague's lumber camp, just across the line in Manitoba. The number quickly grew to three thousand. Later investigation revealed that three Indians actually had passed the camp!
In January, 1891, fear of impending massacre swept the valley. The Chippewa of the Warroad village, twenty-two miles east on Lake of the Woods, were said to be dancing the ghost dance with visitors from Red Lake and other places in the vicinity. The climax of a series of wild stories was a Revere-like arousal of the valley settlers by two men who bore the terrifying information that Indians in war paint were descending upon the settlement. In confusion and panic, settlers loaded their household goods on carts and headed precipitately, in the dead of winter, out of the valley. Those who were determined to remain grimly prepared to defend themselves. Among those who held their ground were some who doubted the story of an uprising. They sent scouts to Warroad to see what the Indians actually were doing.
In the meantime the evacuation of the valley continued. Erick Holm, who was dispatched to Hallock to report to the authorities, "met about sixty teams of refugees on the sand ridge in a most miserable plight." Upon returning from Warroad, the scouts reported that the Chippewa there were friendly and were only indulging in social dancing. Moreover, when Chief Maypuck and his band learned of the scare, they were almost as frightened as the settlers. Apprehensive of repercussions, Maypuck and a companion journeyed to Roseau to learn more about the matter.
Ironically enough, the friendly aid of the Indians helped to prevent the settlers who had abandoned their homes from suffering big losses. To Roseau one day went the good Indian Mickinock. He found that all the whites had left. Their stock was almost perishing for lack of food and water, so he watered and fed all abandoned cattle on his way from his camp to town. Upon hearing that the whites believed the rumors of an uprising, Mickinock was incredulous. He told the people to send word to those who had fled to return, as he could not take care of their stock all winter. So quickly did the scare resolve itself and so slowly did the refugees travel in ox carts, that emissaries soon overtook them and persuaded most of them to return. February saw smoke once again rising above the housetops, proclaiming that all was well in the Roseau Valley.
From The Early History of the Roseau Valley Earl V. Chapin (1943) MNHS
An 1892 letter regarding the Metis at Turtle Mountain maintaining their own military to confront settlers stealing Indian lands around the Turtle Mountains. This is just one of the reasons that the McCumber Commission tried so hard to remove and disenroll the mixed-bloods at Turtle Mountain...
Many half-breed Indians from the British Possessions north and northwest of this state have settled in the Turtle Mountains and have so far successfully resisted the collection of state taxes among them. They have a quasi-military organization and have on one or two occasions terrorized the settlers of that region.
Those facts led to the formation of two troops of cavalry (at Bottineau and Dunseith) which last year received carbines, boxes, and belts and full dress uniforms. They will shortly receive complete equipment and mounted drills for troops and battalion will be held in the spring. They have not received the drill regulations, but the strong interest in the organizations has resulted in sufficient work with the infantry drill regulations to about place these troops on a par with the infantry companies.
Troop A at Dunseith has 41 members, of whom 30 were present for inspection. Troop B at Bottineau has 35 members, of whom 23 were present for inspection. These two troops are organized into a battalion with the necessary staff, commanded by Maj. W. H. McKee, of Dunseith. Most members are farmers and can attend drills only with much inconvenience to themselves, yet in the face of these facts the organization is kept up and the attendance at drill is good. The battalion is in good hands and a good degree of efficiency can be expected from Maj. McKee and his command.
REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR-GENERAL NATIONAL GUARD OF NORTH DAKOTA. Bismarck, N. Dak., November 7, 1892.
A report on smallpox among the Indians of North Dakota
A surgeon's report from the Turtle Mountain Reservation in 1900 reported a smallpox outbreak.
Why it's hard to identify your true clan
Since there seems to have been a recent spate of discussions about clans going on, here is a quick clarification on the clan system of the Ojibwe people.
Despite some people claiming that clans come from the mother, the fact is that Ojibwe society was divided into patrilineal (male lineage) doodem-based clans, where the clan was derived from the male line (i.e. fathers to sons/daughters). In no instance were clans taken from the mother. Clan members were seen as close family and thus intermarriage was forbidden. Clan members viewed each other as close family members.
There were strict rules of no marriage between clan members and doodem were used to delineate hunting and trapping areas, with the clan doodem often marked on trees or trails that could be read by others. A person was not supposed to eat or hunt their own clan animal, bird or fish.
In cases where there was a non-native father, or father was from a different tribe, the person would sometimes be granted the right to be designated by either the Migizi (bald eagle) or Waabizheshii (marten) clan depending on the area one lived. The wolf clan (ma'iingan) was sometimes used if the father of the child was Dakota Sioux.
Once the fur trade started in earnest (around 1800), the clan system was rapidly transformed as hunting stopped happening in small, defined areas and started to cross vast areas. Allegiances changed rapidly and families married out and across several different groups (Crees, Ojibwe, Assiniboine, etc). The growth of the Metis further changed and diminished the clan identity system with greater attachment to locations (trading posts or hunting areas) gaining prescendence.
It is VERY rare (although not impossible) for someone to actually know their clan nowadays, especially if they have significant Metis lineage or recent European ancestors. This does not mean that a clan system cannot be re-established for the people with Ojibwe heritage, but it is very difficult.
The Pembina Chippewa
A definitive overview of the development of the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians during the late 1700s and early 1800s, this document gives a detailed description of how the Plains Ojibwe and Metis came together to create a hybrid group that roamed the prairies of North Dakota and Canada for almost a hundred years.
An interesting Fact from history
Did you know that the great leader of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa was the model for the State Seal of the State of Massachusetts? Yes, he actually is.
The head used for the official Massachusetts seal comes from the famous portrait of Little Shell (Es-ence) which was furnished to the designers of the seal by the Bureau of American Ethnology. His picture was selected to be the model for the seal (to quote the designers) “...not only because he [Little Shell] was a fine specimen of an Indian, but also because his tribe, the Ojibwas, belong to the great Algonquin family of which the Massachusetts were also members”. As he stands on the shield, Little Shell is clothed in a shirt, leggings and moccasins.
The legislature of Massachusetts approved the state seal with Little Shell’s image on June 4, 1885. The Massachusetts Little Shell inspired seal also graces the State Flag.
A collaborative effort of members of the Ojibwe and Metis communities