Enfranchisement of Women



Beginning with the Gradual Enfranchisement Act, and replicated in the Indian Act of 1876, Indian women who married non-treaty Indian men, white men, or Metis were considered "enfranchised", and could, upon their request and approval by their First Nation, be provided with a one-time payment of ten years’ worth of annuities, referred to as commutation.


During the late 1800s there were hundreds of enfranchisements, but this number increased exponentially after 1920 when the power to refuse commutation was removed from First Nations and the government took it upon themselves to actively remove women from tribal annuity rolls, and ultimately reduce the annual treaty expenditures owed to First Nations women.


​A listing of women removed from their Indian rights is provided below:


TREATY 1 BANDS


Treaty #1. St. Peter's Band


1879-80.

Harriet Hunt


1883-84.

Margaret McLeod, No. 146.

Margaret Pritchard, No. 357.


1884-85.

Lydia Sutherland, No. 354.

Jane White, No. 371.

Charlotte Desrosiers, No. 170.

Emily Ibester, No. 361.

Margaret Thom, No. 63.

E. J. McLeod, No. 136.

Caroline McDonald, No. 388.

Victoria Young, No. 166.

Nancy Leask, No. 143.

Lucy West, No. 409.

Nancy Marsh, No. 42.

Jane Grey, No. 322.

Jane M. Snider, No. 394.

Lucy Fiddler, No. 101.

Catherine Walker, No. 401.


1886-1887

Jessie Spence, No. 304.

Catherine Kennedy, No. 510.


1887-1888

Georgina Stark, No. 365.


1888-1889

Mrs. Catherine Ann Michaud, No. 536.

Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Clouston, No. 511.

Mrs. Catherine Gilliaud, No. 77.


1889-1890

Eliza Daniels, No. 295.

Mrs. Ed. Kippling/Keplin, No. 551.


1890-1891

Matilda Asham, No. 6.

Harriet Fontaine, No. 531.


1891-1892

Mrs. Joseph Moore, No. 394..

Mrs. Sarah Sasford, No. 49.

Mrs. Sarah Sargeant, No. 558.

Mrs. Jane Mowat, No. 218.

Eliza Ann Walker, No. 393.


1892-1893

Nancy Harper, No. 54.

Annabella Gates, No. 560.


1893-1894

Mrs. Mary Ann Hamelin; No. 99.

Mrs. Margaret Sinclair, No. 142.

Caroline Mayo. No. 490.

Esther Flett-Kippling, No. 526.

Mrs. Margaret Rochen, No. 374.

Juliet Kennedy, No. 569.


1894-1895

Mary Ann Folster, No. 639.

Flora Bella Harper, No. 646.

Mary Minnie, No. 613.


Treaty #1. Long Plain Band


​1885-1886

​Anne Favel, No. 12.


Treaty #1. Fort Alexander Band

1884-1885

Rosalie Gagnon, No. 53.

1886-1887

Agnes Briere, No. 20.


1890-1891

Mary Ann ,Johnston, No. 160.

Angelique Johnston, No. 162.


1893-1894

Mrs. Elizabeth Lecoy, No. 157.


1894-1895

Maria Adele Starr, No. 40 .


1895-1896

Catherine Cavanagh, No. 182.​


Treaty #1. Brokenhead River Band


​1884-1885

Charlotte Lapierre, No. 53.


1887-1888

Kapoosohahsohting, No. 28.


1892-1893

Alice Linklater, No. 130.


Treaty #1. Roseau River Band


1894-1895

Margaret Nolin, No. 183.


TREATY 2 BANDS


Treaty #2. Lac Seul Band

1886-1887

Hannah Mcivor, No. 75.

Magna Young, No. 103.

Louisa Kirkness, No. 116.


1895-1896

Mrs. A. R. J. Bannatyne, No. 102.


Treaty #2. Lake Manitoba Band


1881-1882

Maria Misayabit, No. 20.

Margaret Misayabit, No. 21.

Shaw-aw-way-in-cit-ah-wook, No. 24.

Isabella, No. 1.


1882-83.

Mary Saunderson.


1891-1892

Marie Ste. Matte, No. 58.