In a historical article, Lawrence Barkwell describes two Red River buffalo hunting trails. One of the trails proceeds south on the east side of the Turtle Mountains and enters the rich buffalo grounds of the upper Red River Valley. The other goes south, west of Turtle Mountains, heading for the Missouri Grand Coteau and the herds of that region. A map showing these trails is provided below:
The detailed description of each of the trails is offered below:
The eastern trail:
This trail left the Fort Garry / St. Norbert vicinity passing close to where Carman is now located, then ascending the escarpment of the plateau called the Pembina Hills (or Hair Hills), and from there, southwesterly to a butte known as Calf Mountain in the south-east portion of Township 3-6, then south-westerly, crossing thePembina River in 26-2-9-W of the 1st meridian and so on to Devils Lake, Dakota Territory and beyond to the Sheyenne River. Calf Mountain - Tete De Bouef (Buffalo Head, Calf Mountain) was built by natives as a ritual meeting place, and was used to bury great men of their time. Calf Mountain is to the east of the Pembina River on the Little Pembina River.
The western trail:
The old trail from Manitoba to Mandan country on the Missouri near the entry of the Little Knife River left Fort la Reine (Portage la Prairie) headed south past Calf Mountain (near Darlingford, Manitoba) past Star Mound (near Snowflake, Manitoba) to the west side of Turtle Mountain then south west to the Missouri. Star Mound Hill, also called Nebogwawin Butte, was once an Aboriginal campsite and burial ground. It is located near Snowflake, Manitoba. A large buffalo rubbing stone is located there
Barkwell, Lawrence: Buffalo Hunting Trails