Original Document/Primary Source
The complete 1892 Census of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. This is the official, un-indexed version of ever person listed within the jurisdiction of the Turtle Mountain Indian Commission of October 1, 1892.
For people who wonder about these sorts of things...
In the study of history, a primary source (also called original source or “evidence”) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic.
Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Generally, accounts written after the fact with the benefit (and possible distortions) of hindsight are secondary.
It is now possible to be registered as Métis, in much the same way that First Nations are registered as Indians in the Indian Registry.
Métis are included as one of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which reads:
35 (1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.
(2) in this Act, the aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.
The Métis emerged as a distinct people or nation in the historic Northwest during the course of the 18th and 19th centuries. This area is known as the “historic Métis Nation Homeland,” which includes the 3 Prairie Provinces and extends into Ontario, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and the northern United States. This historic Métis Nation had recognized Aboriginal title, which the Government of Canada attempted to extinguish through the issuance of “scrip” and land grants in the late 19th and 20th centuries.
The Métis National Council consequently adopted the following definition of “Métis” in 2002:
“Métis” means a person who self-identifies as Métis, is distinct from other Aboriginal peoples, is of historic Métis Nation Ancestry and who is accepted by the Métis Nation.”
In 2003, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed that Métis are a rights-bearing Aboriginal people. Its judgement in R. v. Powley set out the components of a Métis definition for the purpose of claiming Aboriginal rights under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. These are:
• Self-identification as a member of a Métis community.
• Ancestral connection to the historic Métis community whose practices ground the right in question
• Acceptance by the modern community with continuity to the historic Métis community.
How to Apply:
To be registered as Métis, you must apply to the Métis Registry operated by the MNC Governing Member in the province in which you reside. Each Registry has its own application forms and application process. Application forms can usually be downloaded from the Registry’s website or can be obtained in person at the Provincial Office or Regional Offices of the Governing Member in question or can be mailed to you if you phone for the information.
EThnobotany of the Ojibwe People
The health and well-being of the community was of prime importance to the Ojibwe, and people had a number of techniques and uses of plants which they used to prevent and cure various illnesses. Both illnesses of the body and the spirit were recognized and had specific cures and preventative techniques. Minor illnesses of the body could sometimes be cured by a sweatlodge or by taking an herbal or other remedy. While these things could be "home remedies" in the sense that many people knew the uses of medicinal plants and used them, other medicines and cures could only be used by individuals with special knowledge and training. These kinds of treatments were specifically important for those disease, which were felt to result from a supernatural force.
Abuse of Lake Superior Half-Breed Scrip
A Congressional inquiry about two pieces of land purchased with Half-breed Chippewa scrip in Utah. According to the inquiry, it appeared that the land scrip "...had been transferred to various and sundry persons, who had probably acquired equities," Rather than cancel these land acquisitions, the government let them stand.
Fort PeCk Indian Agency, Poplar, Montana, October 8, 1934.
Grave concerns about the health conditions of Turtle Mountain Chippewa living in the Trenton area.
The original Constitution of the Turtle MOuntain Chippewa
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS FOR THE ORGANIZATION, GOVERNMENT AND ELECTION FOR AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE TURTLE MOUNTAIN BAND OF CHIPPEWA INDIANS.
The Handwritten order creating the Turtle Mountain Res.
The Executive Order Creating the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation (1882)
Title: Withdraws land for Turtle Mountain band of Chippewa Indians, Dec. 21, 1882 by President Chester A. Arthur
A bill introduced to create an Ojibwe territory in Dakota
February 08, 1872 (42th Congress, 2th Session)
Summary: Mr. Ramsey asked and, by unanimous consent, obtained leave to bring in the following bill; which was read twice, referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. Reported by Mr. Boreman with amendments, viz: Strike out the parts in [brackets] and insert the parts printed in italics. Accompanied by Report No. 34. A Bill To establish the Territory of [Ojibway] Pembina, and to provide a temporary government therefor.
Old Crossing Treaty of 1863-1864
“Chippewa Annuity Payrolls” 1864 – 1878 on the “Old Crossing Treaty” between the United States and “chiefs and headmen” of the Red Lake and Pembina Bands of Chippewa Indians concluded October 2, 1863 - amended April 12, 1964 compiled by Wub-e-ke-niew and Clara NiiSka from Minnesota Historical Society Microfilm Series M-390:
United States Office of Indian Affairs, Chippewa Annuity Rolls.