A memo following the US v. Bruce Decision
Immediately following the US v. Bruce decision, over 100,000 acres of Turtle Mountain Public Domain Allotments (PDA) were taken away from the tribe and its members. The decision greatly impacted the tribe and relegated hundreds of tribal members landless under the 1904 agreement. Below is the text of a memo following the court decision.
"The Act of Congress approved April 21, 1904 (33 Stat. at L. 189-194, chap. 1402), provides that all members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians who may be unable to secure land upon the reservation mentioned in said act may take homesteads upon any vacant lands belonging to the United States, without charge. The Indians are not required to make settlement upon the land selected. All that is necessary for an Indian who is an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewas to do to secure an allotment selection under this act of Congress, is to pick out the land he wants and file his application therefor. His application should be filed in the local land office of the district within which the land described in his application is located, and the same must be accompanied by a certificate from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs or the superintendent of the Turtle Mountain Indian School at Belcourt, North Dakota, that the applicant is a duly enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians.
Under this act, the Indian parent may have allotment selections allowed to each of his minor children, but on January 15, 1916, the Secretary of the Interior held that in order to entitle a member of said band of Indians to an allotment selection, it must affirmatively appear that the applicant was in being October 8, 1904, the date the Act of April 21, 1904, was ratified and accepted by the Indians. This decision has caused a great number of applications filed for children who were born since October 8, 1904, to be rejected, and about 100,000 acres of land has been thereby restored to the public domain and to entry under the various public land laws.
A Turtle Mountain Chippewa, however, is not entitled to receive both an allotment selection under the Act of April 21, 1904, and a regular homestead."
from: Rights of Indians on Public Lands, by Thomas J. Tydings, Washington, DC. (1917)
Original Document/Primary Source
The complete 1892 Census of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. This is the official, un-indexed version of ever person listed within the jurisdiction of the Turtle Mountain Indian Commission of October 1, 1892.
For people who wonder about these sorts of things...
In the study of history, a primary source (also called original source or “evidence”) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic.
Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Generally, accounts written after the fact with the benefit (and possible distortions) of hindsight are secondary.
It is now possible to be registered as Métis, in much the same way that First Nations are registered as Indians in the Indian Registry.
Métis are included as one of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which reads:
35 (1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.
(2) in this Act, the aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.
The Métis emerged as a distinct people or nation in the historic Northwest during the course of the 18th and 19th centuries. This area is known as the “historic Métis Nation Homeland,” which includes the 3 Prairie Provinces and extends into Ontario, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and the northern United States. This historic Métis Nation had recognized Aboriginal title, which the Government of Canada attempted to extinguish through the issuance of “scrip” and land grants in the late 19th and 20th centuries.
The Métis National Council consequently adopted the following definition of “Métis” in 2002:
“Métis” means a person who self-identifies as Métis, is distinct from other Aboriginal peoples, is of historic Métis Nation Ancestry and who is accepted by the Métis Nation.”
In 2003, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed that Métis are a rights-bearing Aboriginal people. Its judgement in R. v. Powley set out the components of a Métis definition for the purpose of claiming Aboriginal rights under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. These are:
• Self-identification as a member of a Métis community.
• Ancestral connection to the historic Métis community whose practices ground the right in question
• Acceptance by the modern community with continuity to the historic Métis community.
How to Apply:
To be registered as Métis, you must apply to the Métis Registry operated by the MNC Governing Member in the province in which you reside. Each Registry has its own application forms and application process. Application forms can usually be downloaded from the Registry’s website or can be obtained in person at the Provincial Office or Regional Offices of the Governing Member in question or can be mailed to you if you phone for the information.
EThnobotany of the Ojibwe People
The health and well-being of the community was of prime importance to the Ojibwe, and people had a number of techniques and uses of plants which they used to prevent and cure various illnesses. Both illnesses of the body and the spirit were recognized and had specific cures and preventative techniques. Minor illnesses of the body could sometimes be cured by a sweatlodge or by taking an herbal or other remedy. While these things could be "home remedies" in the sense that many people knew the uses of medicinal plants and used them, other medicines and cures could only be used by individuals with special knowledge and training. These kinds of treatments were specifically important for those disease, which were felt to result from a supernatural force.
Abuse of Lake Superior Half-Breed Scrip
A Congressional inquiry about two pieces of land purchased with Half-breed Chippewa scrip in Utah. According to the inquiry, it appeared that the land scrip "...had been transferred to various and sundry persons, who had probably acquired equities," Rather than cancel these land acquisitions, the government let them stand.
Fort PeCk Indian Agency, Poplar, Montana, October 8, 1934.
Grave concerns about the health conditions of Turtle Mountain Chippewa living in the Trenton area.
The original Constitution of the Turtle MOuntain Chippewa
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS FOR THE ORGANIZATION, GOVERNMENT AND ELECTION FOR AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE TURTLE MOUNTAIN BAND OF CHIPPEWA INDIANS.
The Handwritten order creating the Turtle Mountain Res.
The Executive Order Creating the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation (1882)
Title: Withdraws land for Turtle Mountain band of Chippewa Indians, Dec. 21, 1882 by President Chester A. Arthur
A bill introduced to create an Ojibwe territory in Dakota
February 08, 1872 (42th Congress, 2th Session)
Summary: Mr. Ramsey asked and, by unanimous consent, obtained leave to bring in the following bill; which was read twice, referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. Reported by Mr. Boreman with amendments, viz: Strike out the parts in [brackets] and insert the parts printed in italics. Accompanied by Report No. 34. A Bill To establish the Territory of [Ojibway] Pembina, and to provide a temporary government therefor.