Abuse of Lake Superior Half-Breed Scrip
A Congressional inquiry about two pieces of land purchased with Half-breed Chippewa scrip in Utah. According to the inquiry, it appeared that the land scrip "...had been transferred to various and sundry persons, who had probably acquired equities," Rather than cancel these land acquisitions, the government let them stand.
Fort PeCk Indian Agency, Poplar, Montana, October 8, 1934.
Grave concerns about the health conditions of Turtle Mountain Chippewa living in the Trenton area.
The original Constitution of the Turtle MOuntain Chippewa
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS FOR THE ORGANIZATION, GOVERNMENT AND ELECTION FOR AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE TURTLE MOUNTAIN BAND OF CHIPPEWA INDIANS.
The Handwritten order creating the Turtle Mountain Res.
The Executive Order Creating the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation (1882)
Title: Withdraws land for Turtle Mountain band of Chippewa Indians, Dec. 21, 1882 by President Chester A. Arthur
A bill introduced to create an Ojibwe territory in Dakota
February 08, 1872 (42th Congress, 2th Session)
Summary: Mr. Ramsey asked and, by unanimous consent, obtained leave to bring in the following bill; which was read twice, referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. Reported by Mr. Boreman with amendments, viz: Strike out the parts in [brackets] and insert the parts printed in italics. Accompanied by Report No. 34. A Bill To establish the Territory of [Ojibway] Pembina, and to provide a temporary government therefor.
Old Crossing Treaty of 1863-1864
“Chippewa Annuity Payrolls” 1864 – 1878 on the “Old Crossing Treaty” between the United States and “chiefs and headmen” of the Red Lake and Pembina Bands of Chippewa Indians concluded October 2, 1863 - amended April 12, 1964 compiled by Wub-e-ke-niew and Clara NiiSka from Minnesota Historical Society Microfilm Series M-390:
United States Office of Indian Affairs, Chippewa Annuity Rolls.
A letter from Little Shell to Father genin asking for help
Following the starvation of 1887-1888, the Turtle Mountain Chippewa decided to fend for themselves by cutting trees in their yet unceded lands near St. John. This act led to the arrest of sub-chief Red Thunder and almost led to an uprising that would have seen bloodshed on both sides.
A letter to the Duluth Journal, 1888
In 1888, Father Genin, the attending priest for the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, reported mass starvation among his flock. Genin noted: "In the winter of 1887 to 1888 there were counted 151 persons, big and small, who died there of starvation. I buried a number of them myself, taking three, the mother and two grown children out of one single family."
A 1951 bill that would have helped the landless Chippewa
S. 743 was introduced in the Senate on February 01, 1951 (82th Congress, 1th Session) to promote the rehabilitation of the landless Indians of Montana, and for other purposes. This bill would have done several things if had passed into law.
First, it would have created a program of basic economic and other improvements for the benefit of the landless Indians residing in Montana who were not enrolled; Second, it would have created a membership roll of the Indians entitled to the benefits of this Act; Third, it would have allowed any 10 landless Indians to form a charter as a local cooperative association (a Metis local, so to speak) which would have received and dispensed assistance to members; Fourth, any land purchased by these locals would have been held in trust by the US government for these Indians; and finally it would have appropriated $5-million dollars to carry out this Act.
It is sad that it didn't pass, as this would have set the groundwork for the Little Shell Tribe to gain its deserved recognition...something that is still being waited for today.
S. 2556 was introduced and reported in Senate on July 27, 1955. The purpose of this bill was to provide assistance to the Landless Indians living at Hill 57 (mostly Metis and Ojibwe of the Little Shell band). The bill did not pass. Nonetheless, it was a measure of recognition of the long-suffering Landless Indians of Montana.